Challenging the Kyl-Bingaman Amendment: opening access to satellite imagery over Israel and Palestine

Michael Fradley, Endangered Archaeology EAMENA Project

Access to satellite imagery has enabled major advances in archaeology and other disciplines studying the Middle East and North Africa. A comparable impact had not been realised over Israel and Palestine, where U.S. restrictions known as the Kyl-Bingaman Amendment limited imagery resolution over this area. This paper will present the work of Michael Fradley and Andrea Zerbini (1984-2019) to remove these restrictions, culminating in the reduction on limits in June 2020, but also considering how structural barriers remain in place. As well as telling this slightly improbable tale, it will also reflect and celebrate the work of Andrea Zerbini who died in July 2019. 

Michael Fradley is a landscape archaeologist specialising in survey techniques, with a background of research across the UK, South America, North Africa and the Middle East. He joined the Endangered Archaeology in the Middle East and North Africa (EAMENA) project in 2015 where he has conducted research across Yemen, Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Palestine. He has recently co-authored papers on the endangered maritime heritage of Gaza and the use of historic aerial imagery to investigate the Jericho Oasis.   

Date: July 6, 2022

Time: 5pm

Location: The Palestine Exploration Fund, 5-6 Dreadnought Walk, Greenwich, SE10 9FP

To book your free ticket, please e-mail

The talk will also be livestreamed on the CBRL’s YouTube channel and Facebook page. An edited version of the  lecture will also be posted on the PEF’s YouTube channel.

We look forward to welcoming you in person, and online!