PEQ is the peer-reviewed journal of the PEF

PEQ was established in 1865 as the first scholarly society dedicated to the scientific study of what was then generally known as the Holy Land. In 1869, the Fund through its Palestine Exploration Fund Quarterly Statement aimed to illuminate the Bible for its readers with scholarly information about the land of the Bible. PEQ is the Statement’s successor and has greatly widened its original scope.


Despite its title, PEQ is concerned not just with Palestine/the land of Israel, but with the wider region of the Levant – its history, archaeology (including biblical aspects), art, languages, natural and earth ethnology, geography and natural and earth sciences. Its contents include reports of archaeological work (especially that supported by the PEF), studies of pottery and other artefacts, examination and interpretation of archaeological sites, publications and studies of inscriptions, ancient texts, archival material relating to the exploration of the Levant, and reviews of books.

Latest issue

September 2021

Volume 153, Number 3

Accessing PEQ

Presently four issues of PEQ are published each year. The journal is sent to all subscribing PEF members and institutions. The print journal can be found in many specialist and University libraries or can be consulted by our members within the PEF’s library in Greenwich.


The full text of PEQ is available online to PEF members and institutional subscribers via the Taylor and Francis online platform at


PEF members will need to go through a brief account registration and activation process. Current PEF members will receive details on how to register direct from Taylor & Francis.


Access to the online version is also available to current subscribers or on a pay-per view basis to non-subscribers.

PEQ back issues

Many of the issues of the Palestine Exploration Quarterly are now out of print. Four issues per year were published from 1869 to 1941. From 1942 onwards there have been two issues per year. Original issues, paper bound are currently available.


All issues: Years 1878-1879, 1888-90, 1892, 1897-1900, 1902, 1905, 1909-13, 1933, 1940-42, 1965-2005.
Incomplete: 1875-77, 1880-82, 1884-1885, 1887, 1891, 1901, 1907, 1914-15, 1931-32, 1936, 1938-39, 1961, 1964

Price: £10 per issue, £20 per year.

All out of print issues are available as pdfs – prices as above. Indices are available for £6 for the years 1869-1892, 1893-1910, 1911-1963. 


Enquiries and orders should be directed to the Fund’s office, not to Taylor & Francis.

PEQ: Instructions for Authors

Contributors to the PEQ are advised to read this Instructions for Authors section. This section also includes instructions for authors and publishers to send books for the Reviews section of PEQ. For queries, please contact the Editor, Dr. J. Bjørnar Storfjell at


September 2021

PEQ: Volume 153, Number 3

Front cover: PEF-P-2114: The spring of Robinson’s Arch at the south east end of the enclosure wall of the Temple Mount – Haram al Sharif, as it appeared at ground level in 1875. Photo by Frank Mason Good, 1875.




171 Hidden in plain sight

J. Bjørnar Storfjell 



173 The Murder of James Leslie Starkey near Lachish. A different view from a Colonial

Office file

Josef Mario Briffa SJ 


191 Frankish Viticulture, Wine Presses, and wine production in the Levant: New Evidence

from Castellum Regis (Mi ilya¯)

Rabei G. Khamisy 


222 Archival notes on Robinson’s Arch and the Temple Mount/Haram al-Sharif in Jerusalem

Shimon Gibson 


244 On the Archaeology of 10th Century BCE Israel and the Idea of the ‘State’

Zachary Thomas 


Book Review

258 K. Shillington, Charles Warren: Royal Engineer in the Age of Empire

R L Chapman 


260 Acknowledgements 




JUNE 2021

PEQ: Volume 153, Number 2

Front cover: PEF-P-1152: General view of spring and ravine at Ayun Musa or Ain Nebbeh (Nebo), Jordan. Photograph by Sergeant Henry Phillips R.E., 1867.





81 To Flip or not to Flip

J. Bjørnar Storfjell




83 Iron Age Nebo: Preliminary investigations at Khirbat al-Mukhayyat and Rujm al-Mukhayyat,


Andrew Danielson and Debra Foran

113 Gorer Tower and the Biblical Edom Road

Eli Cohen-Sasson, Oz. Varoner, Eyal. Frieman and Conn. Herriott

129 A Note on Olive Oil Production in Iron Age Philistia: Pressing the consensus

Aren M. Maeir, Eric L. Welch and Maria Eniukhina

145 Insufficient evidence for metal butchering marks at Tell el-Hesi during the Early Bronze Age:

Critique of the analysis of microscopic grooves in ‘Cultural Modification Analyses on Faunal

Remains in Relation to Space Use and Direct Provisioning from Field VI EBIIIA Tell el-Hesi’ by

Kara Larson, James W. Hardin, and Sara Cody

Haskel J. Greenfield




156 On the Mediaeval and Ottoman Syro-Jordanian Hajj Roads to Mecca: The Pilgrim Camps in

their Landscapes: 2015 Report

Claudine Dauphin



Book Reviews

160 Győző Vörös, Machaerus I: History, Archaeology and Architecture of the Fortified Herodian Royal

Palace and City Overlooking the Dead Sea in Transjordan. Final Report of the Excavations and

Surveys 1807–2012

Győző Vörös, Machaerus II: The Hungarian Archaeological Mission in the Light of the American-

Baptist and Italian-Franciscan Excavations and Surveys: Final Report 1968–2014

Győző Vörös, Machaerus III: The Golden Jubilee of the Archaeological Excavations. Final Report

on the Herodian Citadel (1968–2018)

Joan E. Taylor

167 Haim Goren, ‘The loss of a minute is just so much loss of life’: Edward Robinson and Eli Smith in

the Holy Land

J. R. Bartlett


March 2021

PEQ: Volume 153, Number 1

Front cover: PEF-P-362: The synagogue at Meron – Khirbet Shema – in the Galilee, looking North. Photo by Sgt. Henry Phillips R.E., 1866.



Guest Editorial

1 A response to ‘On delays in the publication of excavation reports’ by P.J. Parr

(PEQ 152.3, 181–83)

Aren M. Maeir



5 Via Nova Traiana between Petra and al-Khirbet al-Samra in Arabia Petraea

Fawzi Abudanah, Mansour A. Shqiarat, Adeeb al-Salameen and Mohammed B. Tarawneh

24 Tel Rosh: The forgotten Rehob in the Upper Galilee

Hayah Katz and Yigal Levin

42 ‘Estates’ or ‘forts’ in Persian period Yehud?

Raz Kletter and Jason M. Silverman

62 Eusebios’ aedicula tombstone from Hippos

Michael Eisenberg and Gregor Staab


Book Reviews

70 A. Dodson, Rameses III King of Egypt: His Life and Afterlife

A. Dodson, Afterglow of Empire: Egypt from the Fall of the New Kingdom to the Saite


Peter James

75 Raouf Abu Jaber, Al-Fahum and the al-Fahum Registry: A study of Nazareth

Sarah Irving

76 N. Cooke (ed.), Journeys erased by time: the rediscovered footprints of travellers in Egypt and the

Near East

Luciana Carvalho


DECember 2020

PEQ: Volume 152, Number 4

Front cover: PEF-P-82: Excavators working on the East Face of Tell el Hesi, towards the North West. Photo by Frederick Jones Bliss, 1891-93.



281 Editorial

Tell el-Hesi: The Joint Expedition

Jeffrey A. Blakely and J. Bjørnar Storfjell



283 The Economic Base of Early Bronze Age Hesi

Lawrence E. Toombs, Roger W. Anderson and Jeffrey A. Blakely

304 The Early Bronze Age of Tell el-Hesi and its environs: From Petrie’s initial discovery to

today’s understanding

Geoffrey E. Ludvik and Jeffrey A. Blakely

332 Identification of an EB IIIA Incised Bone Tube Workshop at Tell el-Hesi, Israel

Geoffrey Ludvik and Kara Larson

365 Cultural Modification Analyses on Faunal Remains in Relation to Space Use and Direct

Provisioning from Field VI EBIIIA Tell el-Hesi

Kara Larson, James W. Hardin and Sara Cody

Book Review

389 O. Keel, 700 Skarabäen und Verwandtes aus Palästina/Israel

Pieter Gert Van der Veen

September 2020

PEQ: Volume 152, Number 3

Front cover: Adapted from PEF-M-WS-170: Field tracing for the Survey of Western

Palestine, Sheet 1, Trace 3: “Marakah Camp. 30 sq. miles Signed: Lt. H.H.

Kitchener R.E. 21.6 (June). 1877”.



181 Editorial

On delays in the publication of excavation reports

Peter J. Parr 


184 Notes and News

2020 Routledge Philip R. Davies Early Career Researcher Publication Award 


186 The historical geography of 1 Kings 9:11–14

Kyle H. Keimer 

207 A Late Hellenistic–Early Roman Fortress at Khirbat Mudayna as-Saliya,

Central Jordan

Chang-Ho Ji 

234 Six milestone stations and new inscriptions discovered in the Negev along

the Petra-Gaza Incense Route

Chaim Ben David and Benjamin Isaac 

248 Folded wheel-made oil lamps, standing pit burial caves and Judaean ethnic

identity in the Hasmonean period

Omri Y. Abadi and Eyal Regev


Book Reviews

273 Walter Crist, Anne-Elizabeth Dunn-Vaturi and Alex de Voogt, Ancient Egyptians

at play: board games across borders

Stuart Tyson Smith 

274 B. A. Saidel and M. Haiman (eds), Excavations in the Western Negev Highlands: results

of the Negev Emergency Survey 1978–89

Steven A. Rosen 

277 Ron E. Tappy, The archaeology of the Ostraca House at Israelite Samaria: epigraphic

discoveries in complicated contexts

Cat Quine 



279 Books Received 


June 2020

PEQ: Volume 152, Number 2

Front cover: PEF-P-GAR(G)-124 A view of central Amman looking southeast from the

slopes of the citadel. John Garstang, 1920.




79 Epidemics

J. Bjørnar Storfjell 



80 Judith McKenzie 1957–2019

Alison McQuitty 



 82 Iron age chronology and biblical history rejoinders: The late bronze/iron

age transition, Tel ʿEton and Lachish

Israel Finkelstein

94 The Iron Age lower settlement at Kabri revisited

Meir Edrey, Eric H. Cline, Roey Nickelsberg and Assaf Yasur-Landau 

121 Hazor rulership and ritual manipulation

Matthew Susnow, Shlomit Bechar and Assaf Yasur-Landau 

147 The funding of the PEF in its early years, associated issues and responses

David M. Jacobson 

170 Roman sarcophagi at the lower terrace of Amman Citadel

Taher Al-Gonmeen and Hashem Khries 


Book Reviews

176 J.R. Bartlett, Burchard of Mount Sion, OP Descriptio Terrae Sanctae

(Oxford Medieval Texts)

Charlotte Gauthier 

177 Eric H. Cline, Digging up Armageddon: the search for the lost city of Solomon

C. A. Strine 



180 Books Received


MARCH 2020

PEQ: Volume 152, Number 1

Cover Image: PEF-P-2296: General view of Kerak Castle in Moab.

Photo by Charles A. Hornstein, 1895.



1 Winter 2020

C. A. Strine


3 Greek Christian epitaphs from Charakmoba and the Land of Moab

Julien Aliquot and Younis Shdaifat

27 The appearance and disappearance of Birket El-Kamar, Jaffa, Israel

Elie Haddad, Haim Goren, Michal Artzy and Dorit Sivan

44 Boring philology: The meaning of zdh in the Siloam inscription

Raanan Eichler

53 Preference for periphery? Cultural interchange and trade routes along the boundaries of late Iron Age Moab

Annlee Elizabeth Dolan and Steven John Edwards

Notes and News

73 2019 Routledge Philip R. Davies early career researcher publication award

Book Reviews

74 F. Cobbing and D. Jacobson, Distant views of the Holy Land

Chloë Ward

76 Trevor Bryce, Babylonia: a very short introduction

John MacDermot

78 Acknowledgements


September - December 2019

PEQ: Volume 151, Number 3&4

Cover Image: PEF-P-GAR-Huleh 1926. A view of the Huleh Basin taken from Hazor.

John Garstang, 1926.



167 The PEF and the ethics of studying the past

Michael Press 


169 Terence Croft Mitchell 1929–2019

Avantika Clark 

170 Dr. Andrea Zerbini, 1984–2019

Chiara Fiaccavento

Notes From The Field

172 Antalya-Kumluca Bronze Age Shipwreck 2019 studies—first analyses

Hakan Öniz 


184 Changing allegiances in disputed borderlands: Dan’s political status

on the eve of the Aramaean invasion

Yifat Thareani 

202 Reconsidering the Ancient name of Nebi Samwil

Nadav Na’aman 

218 The K8 House: A new domestic space from the Iron Age II at Tell Halif, Israel

Latif Oksuz, James W. Hardin and Jared Wilson 

PEQ Grant Reports

245 Documentation of the British Museum’s Palestine Textile Collections

March–July 2018

Omar Joseph Nasser-Khoury 

247 Eastern Badia Archaeological Project Report to Palestine Exploration Quarterly

Yorke M. Rowan 

252 The Islamic Baydha Project, Baydha (Petra Region), season 2018

Micaela Sinibaldi 


256 Minutes of the annual general meeting for the Palestine Exploration

Fund, 6 JUNE 2019

Casey Strine 

Book Reviews

266 B. Tabbah, A map and a lens: Jordan

Stephen D. Sutton 

268 L. Kemal, Imperial perceptions of Palestine: British influence and power

in late Ottoman times

Sarah Irving 

270 J. L. Kelly, The Church of the Holy Sepulchre in text and archaeology

John MacDermot 

271 Z. Farber and J. Wright (eds), Archaeology and history of eighth-century Judah

C. A. Strine 

274 Acknowledgements

275 Lecture Details


June 2019

PEQ: Volume 151, Number 2​

Cover Image: PEF-DA-MACK-150: Painted Philistine Vase from the Central City Area of Beth Shemesh, side view. Original drawing by Francis G. Newton, 1912, text by Duncan Mackenzie.


103 Editorial

C. A. Strine


105 ‘The Inhabitants of Philistia’: On the identity of the Iron I settlers in periphery of the Philistine heartland
Avraham Faust

134 A short history of Mulabbis (Petah Tikva, Israel)
Roy Marom

146 The murder of James Leslie Starkey: Addendum to the paper of Yosef Garfinkel
David Ussishkin

Book Reviews

155 S. Z. Aster and A. Faust (eds), The southern Levant under Assyrian domination
Karen Radner and Poppy Tushingham

158 D. Ussishkin, Biblical Lachish: A tale of construction, destruction, excavation and restoration
John MacDermot

160 John Starr, Classifying the Aramaic texts from Qumran: A statistical analysis of linguistic features
A. G. Daniel

164 Acknowledgements

165 Lecture Card

March 2019

PEQ: Volume 151, Number 1

Cover Image: PEF-P-2630. View of Solomon’s Pools, Photochrom Co. Zurich, 1880–1900.



1 In praise of learned societies and their journals
Linda Hulin


3 A new Bronze Age shipwreck along with ingots in the west of Antalya – preliminary results
Hakan Öniz


15 Survey and excavations at Solomon’s Pools, Palestine: 2018 preliminary report
Matthew J. Adams, Mark Letteney and Max T. B. Peers

36 A zoomorphic sickle terminal from the Natufian site of Wadi Hammeh 27 in Jordan
Rosie Robertson, Phillip C. Edwards and Rosemary Coates

50 Petra, taxes and trade reconsidered in the light of the Petra Church archive
Mohammed Al-Nasarat

69 Two More Nabataean Inscriptions from the Syro-Jordanian Harrah desert
Ali Al-Manaser and Jérôme Norris


87 Minutes of the annual general meeting for the Palestine Exploration Fund, 7 June 2018


99 Alan V. Murray, The Franks in Outremer: studies in the Latin principalities of Palestine and Syria, 1099–1187
Stephen Donnachie


December 2018

PEQ: Volume 150, Number 4

Cover Photo: The 1926 Excavations at Megiddo. Photo by John Garstang from the PEF collections. PEF-P-GAR-Megiddo 1926.


261 C. A. Strine

Notes from the Field
263 New Research and Findings from Tell Sufan
Loay Abu Al Saud and Amer Qobbaj

265 The First Melchizedek Bottle? Notes on the Jerusalem Iron IIA Pithos Inscription
Raz Kletter

272 Tell el-Hesi: A Type Site for reevaluating so-called ‘Egptian Governors’ Redidencies’ of the South
Jeffrey A. Blakely

297 New Light on Schumacher’s Sudliches Burgtor at Megiddo
Robert S. Homsher and Israel Finkelstein

310 The Identification of the Medieval Church of St. Sabas in Jerusalem in the Light of new Documentary Evidence
Denys Pringle

321 A Preliminary Research Trip: British Women In Mandate Palestine (PEF Report)
Charlotte Kelsted

Book Reviews
323 A. K. Marshak, The Many Faces of Herod the Great
David M. Jacobson

326 K. A. Ristau, Reconstructing Jerusalem: Persian-Period Prophetic Perspectives
Jason M. Silverman

328 S. Collins, C. Kobs and M. Luddenit (eds), Teh Tall al-Hammam Excavations, Vol. 1: An Introduction to Tall Al-Hammam
Owen Chesnut

330 R. Mairs, From Khartoum to Jerusalem: The Dragoman Solomon Negima and his Clients (1885 – 1933)
Sarah Irving


Lecture Card

September 2018

PEQ: Volume 150, Number 3

Cover photo: PEF-P-1680: Tancrede R. Dumas’ photograph of Umm al Jimaal taken in 1875 during the American Palestine Exploration Society’s survey of Eastern Palestine. It is Dumas’ number 48 in the series.


181 Editorial

From trowel to tourist
Linda Hulin


183 Towards a Definition of the pre-Classical Phoenician Temple
Meir Edrey

205 Nomads of the H?arrah at Sea: A Safaitic inscription mentioning seafaring accompanied by a rock drawing of a boat from the Jordanian Badiyah
Zeyad Al-Salameen, Younis al-Shdaifat and Rafe Harahsheh

213 An Arab Chariot Monument at Umm al-Jimal
Thomas M. Weber-Karyotakis and Muaffaq Hazza S. al-Khdair

Notes from the field
235 Early Bronze Age Levantine Metal Weapons from the Collection of the Palestine Exploration Fund
Daria Montanari

Book Reviews

252 M. Goodman and Alexander P., Rabbinic texts and the history of late-Roman Palestine (Proceedings of the British Academy 165)
Claudine Dauphin

257 Marshak, A.K., The Many Faces of Herod the Great
David M. Jacobson

261 Ristau, K.A., Reconstructing Jerusalem: Persian-Period Prophetic Perspectives
Jason M. Silverman

263 Collins, S., Kobs. C., and Luddenit, M., The Tall Al-Hammam Excavations, Vol. 1:
An Introduction to Tall al-Hammam
Owen Chesnut

265 Mairs, R., From Khartoum to Jerusalem: the Dragoman Solomon Negima and his Clients (1885–1933)
Sarah Irving

268 Acknowledgements

June 2018

PEQ: Volume 150, Number 2

Cover Photo: Chambardia Shells from Jericho. Courtesy of L. Nigro.



87 Philip R. Davies, Chairman of the PEF, 2015-1018
John R. Bartlett

89 Notes and news


90 A Russian Before and After the Revolution: P. P. Efimenko a Pioneer of Levantine Prehistoric
Ofer Marder, Isaac Gilead, Zinovi Matskevich, Ianir Milevski, Dmitry Yegorov and Alla Nagorsky

110 A hoard of Nilotic nacreous shells from Egypt to Jericho (Early Bronze II, 3000-2800 BC): Their
finding, content and historical archaeological implications
Lorenzo Nigro, Daria Montanari, Francesco Mura, Jehad Yasine and Teresa Rinaldi

126 A Note on Iron Age Figural Artefacts from Tell Dothan
Adam E. Miglio and Rebekah Dutton

143 Report on the pottery from Tell Sufan in Nablus, Palestine
Loay Abu Alsaud and Amer Qobbaj

Book Reviews

161 M., Mouton and S. G., Schmid, Men on the rocks: the formation of Nabataean Petra
Gregory A. Crawford

163 I. Hjelm and T. L. Thompson, History, archaeology and the Bible forty years after “historicity”
(Changing perspectives, 6)
Philip R. Davies

164 Davies, P.R., The History of Ancient Israel: A Guide for the Perplexed
Diana Edelman

166 Rolf Hachmann, Kamid el-Loz 20: Die Keilschriftbriefe und der Horizont von El-Amarna
(Saarbrücker Beiträge zur Altertumskunde, 87)
Marlies Heinz

168 Y. Farhi, Khirbet Qeiyafa Vol. 5, excavation report 2007–2013. The numismatic finds: coins and
related objects
David M. Jacobson

171 Mahieu, B., Between Rome and Jerusalem. Herod the Great and His Sons in Their Struggle for
Recognition: A Chronological Investigation of the Period 40 BC–39 AD, with a Time Setting of
New Testament Events
Henry Curtis Pelgrift

173 L. Nigro Rome, Reading catastrophes. Proceedings of the International Conference “Reading catastrophes: Methodological Approaches and Historical Interpretation. Earthquakes, Floods, Famines, Epidemics between Egypt and Palestine—3rd-1st Millennium BC”, held in Rome, 3rd-4th December 2012 (Rome “La Sapienza” Studies on the Archaeology of Palestine and Transjordan, 11)
Robert Porter

176 Kennedy, D., Settlement and Soldiers in the Roman Near East
Alexandra Ratzlaff

179 Acknowledgements

March 2018

PEQ: Volume 150, Number 1

Cover Image: Tell el ‘Ajjul, photo by Olga Tufnell. PEF-P-TUF-12


1 Editorial

Looking to the future
Linda Hulin

3 Notes and news


4 Tell el-‘Ajjul palaces I and II: Context and function
Holly A. Winter

33 Forts or agricultural estates? Persian period settlement in the territories of the former kingdom of Judah
Avraham Faust

59 Nabataean echoes in al-Harrah: New evidence in light of recent field work
Zeyad al-Salameen, Younis al-Shdaifat and Rafe Harahsheh

Book Reviews

79 Fantalkin, A. and Tal, O., Tell Qudadi: An Iron Age IIB fortress on the central Mediterranean coast of Israel
Frederick Mario Fales

84 Hoffmeier, J.K., Excavations in North Sinai: Tell el-Borg I
Manfred Bietak

86 Acknowledgements