PEQ is the peer-reviewed journal of the PEF

PEQ was established in 1865 as the first scholarly society dedicated to the scientific study of what was then generally known as the Holy Land. In 1869, the Fund through its Palestine Exploration Fund Quarterly Statement aimed to illuminate the Bible for its readers with scholarly information about the land of the Bible. PEQ is the Statement’s successor and has greatly widened its original scope.


Despite its title, PEQ is concerned not just with Palestine/the land of Israel, but with the wider region of the Levant – its history, archaeology (including biblical aspects), art, languages, natural and earth ethnology, geography and natural and earth sciences. Its contents include reports of archaeological work (especially that supported by the PEF), studies of pottery and other artefacts, examination and interpretation of archaeological sites, publications and studies of inscriptions, ancient texts, archival material relating to the exploration of the Levant, and reviews of books.

Latest issue

JUNE 2023

Volume 155, Number 2

Accessing PEQ

Presently four issues of PEQ are published each year. The journal is sent to all subscribing PEF members and institutions. The print journal can be found in many specialist and University libraries or can be consulted by our members within the PEF’s library in Greenwich.


The full text of PEQ is available online to PEF members and institutional subscribers via the Taylor and Francis online platform at


PEF members will need to go through a brief account registration and activation process. Current PEF members will receive details on how to register direct from Taylor & Francis.


Access to the online version is also available to current subscribers or on a pay-per view basis to non-subscribers.

PEQ back issues

Many of the issues of the Palestine Exploration Quarterly are now out of print. Four issues per year were published from 1869 to 1941. From 1942 onwards there have been two issues per year. Original issues, paper bound are currently available.


All issues: Years 1878-1879, 1888-90, 1892, 1897-1900, 1902, 1905, 1909-13, 1933, 1940-42, 1965-2005.
Incomplete: 1875-77, 1880-82, 1884-1885, 1887, 1891, 1901, 1907, 1914-15, 1931-32, 1936, 1938-39, 1961, 1964

Price: £10 per issue, £20 per year.

All out of print issues are available as pdfs – prices as above. Indices are available for £6 for the years 1869-1892, 1893-1910, 1911-1963. 


Enquiries and orders should be directed to the Fund’s office, not to Taylor & Francis.

PEQ: Instructions for Authors

Contributors to the PEQ are advised to read this Instructions for Authors section. This section also includes instructions for authors and publishers to send books for the Reviews section of PEQ. For queries, please contact the Editor, Dr. Charlotte Whiting at


June 2023

PEQ: Volume 155, Number 2

Front cover: Guides and Camels at Wadi Deira.
Photo by C. Leonard Woolley, January 1914. PEF-P20-WL-62.

115 Biblical Ziklag: the Case for Khirbet er-Ra‘i Kyle H. Keimer 1

135 The Level V City Wall at Lachish Hoo-Goo Kang, Sang-Yeup Chang and Yosef Garfinkel

146 Tel ‘Afar (Tell al-Akhdar): A Monastic or Estate Church on the Via Maris South of Caesarea Ofra Barkai, Alexandra Ratzlaff and Itamar Taxel

166 ‘Nevermind the Camel!’: The Hogarth Archive and the Wilderness of Zin Adam John Fraser
Book Reviews
177 Salman Abu Sitta, ATLAS OF PALESTINE 1871–1877 Hana Sleiman and Nadi Abusaada


Notes and News
185 Professor Alan Millard retires from PEQ Editorial Advisory Board

186 Acknowledgements


March 2023

PEQ: Volume 155, Number 1

Front cover: PEF-P-GAR-1334: View of Tell es-Safi, 1928. Photo by John Garstang.

1 The Iron Age IIA ‘Benyaw Inscription’ on a Jar from Tel Abel Beth Maacah. N. Yahalom-Mack, N. Panitz-Cohen, C. A. Rollston, A. Cohen-Weinberger and R. A. Mullins

24 The City Walls of Lachish: Response to Yosef Garfinkel, Michael Hasel, Martin Klingbeil and Their Colleagues. David Ussishkin
44 Filling the gap: A microscopic zooarchaeological approach to changes in butchering technology during the Early and Middle Bronze periods at Tall Zira- a, Jordan Haskel J. Greenfield, Jeremy A. Beller, Jane S. Gaastra and Dieter Vieweger
81 Daily life and cultural appropriation in Early Bronze Age Canaan: Games and gaming in a domestic neighbourhood at Tell es-Safi/Gath, Israel Shira Albaz, Haskel J. Greenfield, Tina L. Greenfield, Annie Brown, Itzhaq Shai and Aren M. Maeir
Book Review

December 2022

PEQ: Volume 154, Number 4

Front cover: Portrait of John Bartlett by Olivia Bartlett. Oil on Canvas.

257 John Bartlett, unintentional mentor
J Bjørnar Storfjell 
258 Rev. Professor John R Bartlett
Graham I Davies, Felicity Cobbing and John MacDermot 
261 The Unique Specialised Economy of Judah under Assyrian Rule and its Impact
on the Material Culture of the Kingdom 
Israel Finkelstein, Yuval Gadot and Dafna Langgut
280 A Mameluke-period terracotta juglet from Umm Zweitineh, Jordan
Hashem Khries and Taher al-Gonmeen 
295 Miniature Terracotta Masks from the Decapolis City of Gerasa/Jerash, Jordan
Adnan Shiyab and Saad Twaissi 295
2020 Grant Reports
320 Dating the Fortress of Umm Tawabin, Jordan: Results of Radiocarbon Dating Analysis
Alexandra Ariotti 
328 The 2022 survey season at Khirbet al-Mudayna al-Aliya, Jordan
Diederik J. H. Halbertsma
333 A Summary Report – PEF Grant: ‘Khirbat al-Mafjar Archaeological Project, Jericho’ 
Mahmoud Hawari
340 Correction 

September 2022

PEQ: Volume 154, Number 3

Front cover: The Synagogue at Capernaum. Photo by J. Bjornar Storfjell, September 1993.


169 Some thoughts about Words
J Bjørnar Storfjell
Routledge Philip Davies Early Career Researcher Publication Award 2020
171 Bathing Jewish, Bathing Greek: Developing an Approach to De-Categorising Hellenism
and Judaism
Joseph Scales
185 The cultural biography of two volute capitals at Iron Age Hazor
Assaf Kleiman
204 The Use of Greek in Palestine: Eupolemus as a Case Study
Marieke Dhont
221 The Urban Renovation of Samaria–Sebaste of the 2nd and 3rd centuries CE: Observations
on some architectural artefacts
Antonio Dell’Acqua
244 On Olive Oil and Perfume Production in Iron Age IIA Tell es Safi/Gath, Israel
David Eitam
Book Review
254 Allison Mickel, Why those who Shovel are Silent: A History of Local Archaeological Knowledge
J. A. Baird
256 Acknowledgements

JUne 2022

PEQ: Volume 154, Number 2

Front cover: PEF-DA-Granqvist Archive: Arrangement of wildflowers and grasses from Artas, Palestine. Hilma Granqvist, 1930s


81 Temporal change in traditional knowledge and use of wild plants in
Artas, Palestine
Emily Mourad Hanna, Katrine Gro Friborg and Mazin B. Qumsiyeh
95 The representation of Judaea on Hadrian’s coins
Paolo Cimadomo 
113 A Reassessment of the Chronology of the Iron Age site of Khirbet en-Nahas,
Southern Jordan
Juan Manuel Tebes 
141 The Roman-Period Road Network in Southern Moab: A Geographic and
Historical Enquiry
Uri Davidovich, Chaim Ben-David and Roi Porat
Book Reviews
160 S. Demesticha and L. Blue (eds), Under the Mediterranean I: Studies in
Maritime Archaeology
Lisa Briggs
163 A. Lawler, Under Jerusalem: The Buried History of the World’s
Most Contested City
Felicity Cobbing
168 Books Received


January 2022

PEQ: Volume 154, Number 1


Front cover: The Phoenician Temple of Ma’abed at Amrit, Syria. Photo Felicity Cobbing.


Notes and News

1 Loay Abu Al-Saud 



2 Liminality and Canaanite Cultic Spaces: Temple Entrances, Status Transformations

and Ritual in Threshold Contexts

Matthew Susnow 

22 Something borrowed, something new? Semitic loanwords and transcriptions

in the Greek epigraphy of Palestine and Arabia

Michael Zellmann-Rohrer 

35 A Group of Pilaster Capitals from Shivta: Marble Import in the Byzantine Negev

Moshe Fischer and Yotam Tepper 

52 Tel Nami, Cyprus, and Egypt: Radiocarbon Dates and Early Middle Bronze Age


Felix H flmayer 


Book Reviews

70 Sabine A. Laemmel, Kom Tuman II: Late Period to Graeco-Roman Pottery,

Volumes I and II

Julia Budka 

72 D. Gurevich and A. Kidron (eds), Exploring the Holy Land: 150 years of the Palestine

Exploration Fund

Sarah Irving 

75 Lee Young, An Artist in Abydos: The Life and Letters of Myrtle Broome

John MacDermot 

76 Brad Crowell, Edom at the Edge of Empire: A Social and Political History

Piotr Bienkowski 


December 2021

PEQ: Volume 153, Number 4


Front cover: PEF-P-WL-7: Caravan in norther Sinai – Wadi Arabah, ‘Ain Gharandal. Photo by T. E. Lawrence, 8th February 1914.



Guest Editorial 

261 The Rockefeller Museum

Jonathan N. Tubb 


264 Notes and News



266 ‘I am sorry for troubling you with the bother of replying! But I really want to know’:

An unpublished letter by T. E. Lawrence to Max van Berchem about a Mameluke

inscription from Naqb (Sinai/Negev)

Massimiliano Munzi and Corinne Sandoz 


279 The Lion’s Mausoleum of Hippos of the Decapolis

Michael Eisenberg


304 Building 101 at Tel ‘Eton, the Low Chronology, and the Perils of a Bias-Perpetuating

Methodology: A Response and a Proposal for the Study of All the Phases in the History

of Buildings

Avraham Faust and Yair Sapir 


Book Reviews

335 M. Peilstocker and S. Wolfram (eds), Life at the Dead Sea: Proceedings of the

International Conference held at the State Museum of Archaeology Chemnitz (smac),

February 21–24, 2018, Chemnitz

Nir Arielli 


336 Jodi Magness, Masada: From Jewish Revolt to Modern Myth

Michael Press


339 Stefan Szepesi, Walking Palestine: 25 Journeys into the West Bank

Stephen Sutto

September 2021

PEQ: Volume 153, Number 3

Front cover: PEF-P-2114: The spring of Robinson’s Arch at the south east end of the enclosure wall of the Temple Mount – Haram al Sharif, as it appeared at ground level in 1875. Photo by Frank Mason Good, 1875.




171 Hidden in plain sight

J. Bjørnar Storfjell 



173 The Murder of James Leslie Starkey near Lachish. A different view from a Colonial

Office file

Josef Mario Briffa SJ 


191 Frankish Viticulture, Wine Presses, and wine production in the Levant: New Evidence

from Castellum Regis (Mi ilya¯)

Rabei G. Khamisy 


222 Archival notes on Robinson’s Arch and the Temple Mount/Haram al-Sharif in Jerusalem

Shimon Gibson 


244 On the Archaeology of 10th Century BCE Israel and the Idea of the ‘State’

Zachary Thomas 


Book Review

258 K. Shillington, Charles Warren: Royal Engineer in the Age of Empire

R L Chapman 


260 Acknowledgements 



JUNE 2021

PEQ: Volume 153, Number 2

Front cover: PEF-P-1152: General view of spring and ravine at Ayun Musa or Ain Nebbeh (Nebo), Jordan. Photograph by Sergeant Henry Phillips R.E., 1867.





81 To Flip or not to Flip

J. Bjørnar Storfjell




83 Iron Age Nebo: Preliminary investigations at Khirbat al-Mukhayyat and Rujm al-Mukhayyat,


Andrew Danielson and Debra Foran

113 Gorer Tower and the Biblical Edom Road

Eli Cohen-Sasson, Oz. Varoner, Eyal. Frieman and Conn. Herriott

129 A Note on Olive Oil Production in Iron Age Philistia: Pressing the consensus

Aren M. Maeir, Eric L. Welch and Maria Eniukhina

145 Insufficient evidence for metal butchering marks at Tell el-Hesi during the Early Bronze Age:

Critique of the analysis of microscopic grooves in ‘Cultural Modification Analyses on Faunal

Remains in Relation to Space Use and Direct Provisioning from Field VI EBIIIA Tell el-Hesi’ by

Kara Larson, James W. Hardin, and Sara Cody

Haskel J. Greenfield




156 On the Mediaeval and Ottoman Syro-Jordanian Hajj Roads to Mecca: The Pilgrim Camps in

their Landscapes: 2015 Report

Claudine Dauphin



Book Reviews

160 Győző Vörös, Machaerus I: History, Archaeology and Architecture of the Fortified Herodian Royal

Palace and City Overlooking the Dead Sea in Transjordan. Final Report of the Excavations and

Surveys 1807–2012

Győző Vörös, Machaerus II: The Hungarian Archaeological Mission in the Light of the American-

Baptist and Italian-Franciscan Excavations and Surveys: Final Report 1968–2014

Győző Vörös, Machaerus III: The Golden Jubilee of the Archaeological Excavations. Final Report

on the Herodian Citadel (1968–2018)

Joan E. Taylor

167 Haim Goren, ‘The loss of a minute is just so much loss of life’: Edward Robinson and Eli Smith in

the Holy Land

J. R. Bartlett


March 2021

PEQ: Volume 153, Number 1

Front cover: PEF-P-362: The synagogue at Meron – Khirbet Shema – in the Galilee, looking North. Photo by Sgt. Henry Phillips R.E., 1866.



Guest Editorial

1 A response to ‘On delays in the publication of excavation reports’ by P.J. Parr

(PEQ 152.3, 181–83)

Aren M. Maeir



5 Via Nova Traiana between Petra and al-Khirbet al-Samra in Arabia Petraea

Fawzi Abudanah, Mansour A. Shqiarat, Adeeb al-Salameen and Mohammed B. Tarawneh

24 Tel Rosh: The forgotten Rehob in the Upper Galilee

Hayah Katz and Yigal Levin

42 ‘Estates’ or ‘forts’ in Persian period Yehud?

Raz Kletter and Jason M. Silverman

62 Eusebios’ aedicula tombstone from Hippos

Michael Eisenberg and Gregor Staab


Book Reviews

70 A. Dodson, Rameses III King of Egypt: His Life and Afterlife

A. Dodson, Afterglow of Empire: Egypt from the Fall of the New Kingdom to the Saite


Peter James

75 Raouf Abu Jaber, Al-Fahum and the al-Fahum Registry: A study of Nazareth

Sarah Irving

76 N. Cooke (ed.), Journeys erased by time: the rediscovered footprints of travellers in Egypt and the

Near East

Luciana Carvalho


DECember 2020

PEQ: Volume 152, Number 4

Front cover: PEF-P-82: Excavators working on the East Face of Tell el Hesi, towards the North West. Photo by Frederick Jones Bliss, 1891-93.



281 Editorial

Tell el-Hesi: The Joint Expedition

Jeffrey A. Blakely and J. Bjørnar Storfjell



283 The Economic Base of Early Bronze Age Hesi

Lawrence E. Toombs, Roger W. Anderson and Jeffrey A. Blakely

304 The Early Bronze Age of Tell el-Hesi and its environs: From Petrie’s initial discovery to

today’s understanding

Geoffrey E. Ludvik and Jeffrey A. Blakely

332 Identification of an EB IIIA Incised Bone Tube Workshop at Tell el-Hesi, Israel

Geoffrey Ludvik and Kara Larson

365 Cultural Modification Analyses on Faunal Remains in Relation to Space Use and Direct

Provisioning from Field VI EBIIIA Tell el-Hesi

Kara Larson, James W. Hardin and Sara Cody

Book Review

389 O. Keel, 700 Skarabäen und Verwandtes aus Palästina/Israel

Pieter Gert Van der Veen

September 2020

PEQ: Volume 152, Number 3

Front cover: Adapted from PEF-M-WS-170: Field tracing for the Survey of Western

Palestine, Sheet 1, Trace 3: “Marakah Camp. 30 sq. miles Signed: Lt. H.H.

Kitchener R.E. 21.6 (June). 1877”.



181 Editorial

On delays in the publication of excavation reports

Peter J. Parr 


184 Notes and News

2020 Routledge Philip R. Davies Early Career Researcher Publication Award 


186 The historical geography of 1 Kings 9:11–14

Kyle H. Keimer 

207 A Late Hellenistic–Early Roman Fortress at Khirbat Mudayna as-Saliya,

Central Jordan

Chang-Ho Ji 

234 Six milestone stations and new inscriptions discovered in the Negev along

the Petra-Gaza Incense Route

Chaim Ben David and Benjamin Isaac 

248 Folded wheel-made oil lamps, standing pit burial caves and Judaean ethnic

identity in the Hasmonean period

Omri Y. Abadi and Eyal Regev


Book Reviews

273 Walter Crist, Anne-Elizabeth Dunn-Vaturi and Alex de Voogt, Ancient Egyptians

at play: board games across borders

Stuart Tyson Smith 

274 B. A. Saidel and M. Haiman (eds), Excavations in the Western Negev Highlands: results

of the Negev Emergency Survey 1978–89

Steven A. Rosen 

277 Ron E. Tappy, The archaeology of the Ostraca House at Israelite Samaria: epigraphic

discoveries in complicated contexts

Cat Quine 



279 Books Received 


June 2020

PEQ: Volume 152, Number 2

Front cover: PEF-P-GAR(G)-124 A view of central Amman looking southeast from the

slopes of the citadel. John Garstang, 1920.




79 Epidemics

J. Bjørnar Storfjell 



80 Judith McKenzie 1957–2019

Alison McQuitty 



 82 Iron age chronology and biblical history rejoinders: The late bronze/iron

age transition, Tel ʿEton and Lachish

Israel Finkelstein

94 The Iron Age lower settlement at Kabri revisited

Meir Edrey, Eric H. Cline, Roey Nickelsberg and Assaf Yasur-Landau 

121 Hazor rulership and ritual manipulation

Matthew Susnow, Shlomit Bechar and Assaf Yasur-Landau 

147 The funding of the PEF in its early years, associated issues and responses

David M. Jacobson 

170 Roman sarcophagi at the lower terrace of Amman Citadel

Taher Al-Gonmeen and Hashem Khries 


Book Reviews

176 J.R. Bartlett, Burchard of Mount Sion, OP Descriptio Terrae Sanctae

(Oxford Medieval Texts)

Charlotte Gauthier 

177 Eric H. Cline, Digging up Armageddon: the search for the lost city of Solomon

C. A. Strine 



180 Books Received


MARCH 2020

PEQ: Volume 152, Number 1

Cover Image: PEF-P-2296: General view of Kerak Castle in Moab.

Photo by Charles A. Hornstein, 1895.



1 Winter 2020

C. A. Strine


3 Greek Christian epitaphs from Charakmoba and the Land of Moab

Julien Aliquot and Younis Shdaifat

27 The appearance and disappearance of Birket El-Kamar, Jaffa, Israel

Elie Haddad, Haim Goren, Michal Artzy and Dorit Sivan

44 Boring philology: The meaning of zdh in the Siloam inscription

Raanan Eichler

53 Preference for periphery? Cultural interchange and trade routes along the boundaries of late Iron Age Moab

Annlee Elizabeth Dolan and Steven John Edwards

Notes and News

73 2019 Routledge Philip R. Davies early career researcher publication award

Book Reviews

74 F. Cobbing and D. Jacobson, Distant views of the Holy Land

Chloë Ward

76 Trevor Bryce, Babylonia: a very short introduction

John MacDermot

78 Acknowledgements


September - December 2019

PEQ: Volume 151, Number 3&4

Cover Image: PEF-P-GAR-Huleh 1926. A view of the Huleh Basin taken from Hazor.

John Garstang, 1926.



167 The PEF and the ethics of studying the past

Michael Press 


169 Terence Croft Mitchell 1929–2019

Avantika Clark 

170 Dr. Andrea Zerbini, 1984–2019

Chiara Fiaccavento

Notes From The Field

172 Antalya-Kumluca Bronze Age Shipwreck 2019 studies—first analyses

Hakan Öniz 


184 Changing allegiances in disputed borderlands: Dan’s political status

on the eve of the Aramaean invasion

Yifat Thareani 

202 Reconsidering the Ancient name of Nebi Samwil

Nadav Na’aman 

218 The K8 House: A new domestic space from the Iron Age II at Tell Halif, Israel

Latif Oksuz, James W. Hardin and Jared Wilson 

PEQ Grant Reports

245 Documentation of the British Museum’s Palestine Textile Collections

March–July 2018

Omar Joseph Nasser-Khoury 

247 Eastern Badia Archaeological Project Report to Palestine Exploration Quarterly

Yorke M. Rowan 

252 The Islamic Baydha Project, Baydha (Petra Region), season 2018

Micaela Sinibaldi 


256 Minutes of the annual general meeting for the Palestine Exploration

Fund, 6 JUNE 2019

Casey Strine 

Book Reviews

266 B. Tabbah, A map and a lens: Jordan

Stephen D. Sutton 

268 L. Kemal, Imperial perceptions of Palestine: British influence and power

in late Ottoman times

Sarah Irving 

270 J. L. Kelly, The Church of the Holy Sepulchre in text and archaeology

John MacDermot 

271 Z. Farber and J. Wright (eds), Archaeology and history of eighth-century Judah

C. A. Strine 

274 Acknowledgements

275 Lecture Details


June 2019

PEQ: Volume 151, Number 2​

Cover Image: PEF-DA-MACK-150: Painted Philistine Vase from the Central City Area of Beth Shemesh, side view. Original drawing by Francis G. Newton, 1912, text by Duncan Mackenzie.


103 Editorial

C. A. Strine


105 ‘The Inhabitants of Philistia’: On the identity of the Iron I settlers in periphery of the Philistine heartland
Avraham Faust

134 A short history of Mulabbis (Petah Tikva, Israel)
Roy Marom

146 The murder of James Leslie Starkey: Addendum to the paper of Yosef Garfinkel
David Ussishkin

Book Reviews

155 S. Z. Aster and A. Faust (eds), The southern Levant under Assyrian domination
Karen Radner and Poppy Tushingham

158 D. Ussishkin, Biblical Lachish: A tale of construction, destruction, excavation and restoration
John MacDermot

160 John Starr, Classifying the Aramaic texts from Qumran: A statistical analysis of linguistic features
A. G. Daniel

164 Acknowledgements

165 Lecture Card

March 2019

PEQ: Volume 151, Number 1

Cover Image: PEF-P-2630. View of Solomon’s Pools, Photochrom Co. Zurich, 1880–1900.



1 In praise of learned societies and their journals
Linda Hulin


3 A new Bronze Age shipwreck along with ingots in the west of Antalya – preliminary results
Hakan Öniz


15 Survey and excavations at Solomon’s Pools, Palestine: 2018 preliminary report
Matthew J. Adams, Mark Letteney and Max T. B. Peers

36 A zoomorphic sickle terminal from the Natufian site of Wadi Hammeh 27 in Jordan
Rosie Robertson, Phillip C. Edwards and Rosemary Coates

50 Petra, taxes and trade reconsidered in the light of the Petra Church archive
Mohammed Al-Nasarat

69 Two More Nabataean Inscriptions from the Syro-Jordanian Harrah desert
Ali Al-Manaser and Jérôme Norris


87 Minutes of the annual general meeting for the Palestine Exploration Fund, 7 June 2018


99 Alan V. Murray, The Franks in Outremer: studies in the Latin principalities of Palestine and Syria, 1099–1187
Stephen Donnachie