The sites of Tell Ta'yinat, Tell Judeideh, and Çatal Hüyük, described
below, were all investigated as part of the ground breaking 'Syrian
Expedition' of the Oriental Institute of Chicago(1932
1938). Led by Robert
Braidwood, this pioneering expedition to the Amuq Valley established
one of the most enduring archaeological sequences for the whole of Syria
and its importance cannot be underestimated. Braidwoods team undertook to plot out a complete chronological
sequence from the Neolithic through to the Hellenistic by excavating
controlled soundings at a number of sites. The sequence begins with the
Neolithic phase A and ends with the Hellenistic phase Q, covering a period
of some 6,000 years.
Together with the equally significant 'Hama Sequence'
defined by the Danes, this 'Amuq Sequence' forms the basis of much of the
dating and phasing of all subsequent archaeological investigation in
These two sites are particularly significant for
demonstrating the sequence in the transitional period between the Late
Bronze and Iron Ages - in the 12th and 11th centuries BC - filling in a
gap which is present both at Alalakh and at Tell Ta'yinat. A great deal of
Aegean pottery was found at these sites, implying strong links with this
region. After about 1,000 BC a new pottery tradition appeared,
contemporary with the earliest of the bit-hilani at Tell Ta'yinat.
It was characterised by a red slip and burnish. This pottery is common at
sites further to the south, such as Qarqur and 'Ain Dara.
Sherds of later pottery types such as Black Attic Ware of the 5th and 4th
centuries BC and Hellenistic pottery of the 3rd century B.C are also much
in evidence at Tell Judeideh.
(J. Tubb, 2001)
The mound of Çatal Hüyük rising above the plain of the Amuq Valley.
(F. Cobbing, 2001)
Members of the group with Jonathan Tubb, identifying surface pottery
sherds on Tell Judeideh.