Holy Lands in the USA: from the Garden Tomb to Noah’s Ark

by Crispin Paine

[part 1 of 2]

Replicas and re-imaginings of the Holy Land have been found throughout the Christian world for well over a thousand years. Today most are to be found in the US: some modest back-garden sites, some multi-million dollar visitor attractions. Last year, thanks to a generous PEF grant, I visited eleven of them.

Typical of the little sites is ‘The Garden of Hope’, a two-acre rather scruffy garden in a suburban back street of working-class Covington, across the river from downtown Cincinnati. In 1938 a Southern Baptist minister, Rev. Morris Coers, visited the Holy Land, and was so moved by the Garden Tomb that he determined to build a replica back home. His Garden opened in 1958; it is now maintained by a local church and used for occasional services and weddings, as well as for informal visits (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1: The ‘Tomb of Christ’ at ‘The Garden of Hope’ (photo by C. Paine).

Besides the replica tomb, the Garden contains a ‘Carpenter’s Shop’, with chairs for meetings or services, a mural of a 19th (?) century Palestinian carpenter, old carpentry tools given by Ben Gurion, and an Israeli flag. It contains alsoa small chapel used for weddings, with ‘a stone from the Horns of Hatton [sic]’ on which the couple stands while exchanging vows. Oddly, this building is vaguely based on a 1620 Spanish Mission church. Other Garden attractions include stones from the River Jordan, from Solomon’s Temple, and from the Good Samaritan Inn. The Garden offers a splendid view over downtown Cincinnati; beside the viewpoint sits a statue of Christ giving the Sermon on the Mount, and behind is (a label informs us) a ’30 feet cross put up by angels during the night.’

At the opposite end of the scale is the Museum of the Bible in Washington, opened in November. I was generously given a preview, plus interviews with the Director and senior staff. The museum was founded by Steve Green, a phenomenally wealthy businessman, and costed some $500m. Before the opening it had attracted some very bad publicity, because his company has been successfully prosecuted for illegally importing looted Iraqi antiquities. The museum tried desperately to distance itself, but Green remains chairman of its Board.

The museum’s focus is on the Bible as a book, and tries to engage with its history, its stories, and its impact; I was assured that it doesn’t promote any one religion or doctrine, but every faith community is given its own voice; as the director put it, they “hope for harmony, like a choir.” Certainly Catholicism receives a lot of emphasis, as does the role of the Hebrew Bible in Judaism and Jewish tradition, but it was less clear that its role in Islam is noticed.

There are six floors. The top two floors are devoted to restaurant, theatre, Biblical Garden, meeting rooms and so on, and the ground floor to reception and orientation, children’s gallery, shop and library. Between are three floors of displays. The lowest is the ‘Impact Floor’, focussed on ‘the impact of the Bible on Society, Government and Culture,’ the middle floor is the ‘Narrative Floor’, focussed on stories from the Bible. The highest is the ‘History Floor’, devoted to the history of the Bible as a book, and the most object-rich of the galleries. The Holy Land will appear in numerous places, most notably in the Hebrew Bible Walk-through, and in a substantial reconstruction, ‘The Nazareth Jesus Knew”, with volunteer actors (Fig. 2).

Fig. 2: Building Nazareth at ‘The Bible Museum’, Washington (photo by C. Paine).

Though there are many concerns, the museum – if only thanks to its size – is going to be a game-changer for religion museums. It aims to be the most technologically advanced museum in the world; the budget for technology alone is $42m.

Two attractions on an almost similar scale have been set up by the Creationist ‘Answers in Genesis’ organisation near Cincinnati. They present not the Holy Land exactly, but stories from the Bible. The Creation Museum attracts over half a million visitors a year. It was opened in 2007 as a major theme-park/museum, with the aim of persuading visitors of the truth of fundamentalist Christianity, and that the Earth was created about 6,000 years ago. The museum’s highlights are certainly the Bible Walkthrough, with its elaborate dioramas of the Garden of Eden and the famous figures of Adam and Eve, and of small children playing with baby dinosaurs (Fig. 3), but equally engaging are the animatronic figures of Noah and his family.

Fig. 3: Dinosaurs at “The Creation Museum” (photo by C. Paine).

The second of Answers in Genesis’s attractions opened in July 2016, and received 1.2m visitors in its opening year. There are plans for a pre-flood walled city, first-century village, Tower of Babel and a journey illustrating the parting of the Red Sea, but the main attraction at present is the wooden replica of Noah’s Ark, 510 feet long and 51 feet high. It really is astonishing. The dramatic exterior is matched by the Piranesi-like views up through the three decks, the timberwork created by Amish craftsmen (Fig. 4).

Fig. 4: Inside ‘Ark Encounter’ (photo by C. Paine).

The displays mix up conventional displays on aspects of the flood (and some more widely presenting Creationist theory) and reconstructions of animal cages and the living quarters of Noah’s family (Fig. 5).

Fig. 5: One of Noah’s disaffected workers, at ‘Ark Encounter’ (photo by C. Paine).

 

 

 

A Day in Jerusalem

By Charlotte Kelsted

In April 2018, a generous travel grant from the Palestine Exploration Fund allowed me to carry out an introductory research trip to Palestine. My research explores the attitudes and experiences of British women (colonial wives, missionaries, teachers, nurses and others) who resided in Palestine during the British Mandate (1920-1948), focusing specifically on encounters between these British women and local Palestinian Arab and Jewish communities. I started my PhD seven months ago, and this research trip has undoubtedly been the highlight of my doctoral study thus far.

After arriving into Tel Aviv late in the evening, I spent the first night of my trip at the charming Kenyon Institute in East Jerusalem. The Kenyon Institute, formerly the British School of Archaeology at Jerusalem (BSAJ), was established during the British military administration of Palestine in 1919, as result of a joint effort by the Palestine Exploration Fund, the British Academy and the Foreign Office. The library at the Kenyon Institute contains over 10,000 volumes on the Middle East and is particularly rich in material relating to Mandate Palestine.

Next to the Kenyon Institute is Dar Issaf Nashashibi, an inspiring archive and library devoted to promoting Palestinian cultural heritage. Dar Issaf Nashashibi was my first stop in Jerusalem and I was fortunate to meet Dua, Head Librarian, who was exceptionally helpful. From the top of Dar Issaf Nashashibi one can see Mount Scopus and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem (Fig. 1). Founded in 1918 and inaugurated under the British Mandate, the Hebrew University has rapidly expanded since the early twentieth century: with 270 students in 1934, in 2017 there were 23,000 students registered at the university.

Fig. 1: Mount Scopus and Hebrew University of Jerusalem (photo by C. Kelsted).

 

Next I visited the Mount of Olives to see the Dome of the Rock in all its splendour. This iconic shrine dominates the Jerusalem landscape and as the golden dome sparkled in the midday sun, the adhan from Al-Aqsa Mosque drifted up the Mount of Olives. Setting eyes on this view for the first time was a stirring moment for me, having gazed longingly at a photograph of this view from my desk in Exeter for several months prior to the trip (Fig. 2).

Fig. 2: The Dome of the Rock seen from Mount of Olives (photo by C. Kelsted).

Back in the heart of this remarkable city in the afternoon, I entered the Old City for the first time through Damascus Gate. The atmosphere that greeted me was intoxicating: narrow passageways full to bursting with fervent tourists, locals expertly weaving in and out of the crowds as they attempt to carry out their daily business, clamorous shopkeepers and street vendors selling their wares, young men speeding through the ancient, cobbled streets on motorbikes, popping up behind you without a moment’s warning and the intoxicating smell of cinnamon and other aromatic herbs and spices emanating from the souq.

Escaping the intensity of the Old City, I roamed along the ramparts from Jaffa Gate to Damascus Gate and onwards, finally reaching the Spafford’s Children Centre. I had first heard the moving story of this centre from The Right Honourable Lady Cope of Berkeley at a Remembrance Service for the British Palestine Police in November 2017, and had been looking forward to visiting ever since.

The Spafford’s Children Centre was founded by Bertha Spafford Vester – an ancestor of the Rt Hon. Lady Cope, a patron of the British Palestine Police Association – in 1925 (Fig. 3 – Special thanks to Rachel Lev at the American Colony Archives, for kindly supplying this image).

Fig. 3: Mothers, nurses and children, Anna Spafford Baby Home (today the Spafford Children’s Centre), 1925 – 1934; part of Members and Activities of the American Colony and Aid Projects, 1926 – 1937 (courtesy of American Colony Archive, Jerusalem).

Bertha’s parents, Horatio and Anna Spafford were pious Christians who moved to the Holy Land in 1881 following the loss of four of their children at sea and another to scarlet fever. On arrival in the Holy Land, Horatio and Anna Spafford founded the American Colony and embarked on a project of philanthropic work to benefit all sections of Jerusalem’s population. In 1925, inspired by the work of her parents, Bertha established the Spafford Baby Home (now the Spafford Children’s Centre). To this day, the centre aims to assist all children and families in need of support, regardless of race or religion.

In the early evening I left the Old City and headed northwards, back to the Kenyon Institute in the Sheikh Jarrah neighbourhood. On the way I came across St George’s Cathedral (Fig. 4).

Fig. 4: Façade of Saint George’s Cathedral (photo by C. Kelsted).

This cathedral was built in the late nineteenth century under the instruction of George Blyth, who had founded the Jerusalem and East Mission (now the Jerusalem and the Middle East Church Association) in 1888. This charming cathedral was the principal Anglican place of worship in the Palestine during the Mandate and thus a focal point for the British community between 1920 and 1948. Taking a moment to envision the British colonial wives, missionaries, teachers, nurses and others who would have congregated at this cathedral – several of whom taught at the adjoining school and college – was the perfect way to end my first day in Jerusalem.

Shifting Sands: A Reflection

By Philip Davies (PEF Chairman)

On that day I decided to visit an exhibition at the National Civil War Centre in Newark (UK): Shifting Sands: Lawrence of Arabia and the Great Arab Revolt, I awoke to news of another Islamist attack in London. It was hard not to keep pondering the possible connections between these two.

The main reason for my visit to Newark was the association between Lawrence and the PEF, which had lent some items for the exhibition, including a copy of the original edition of The Wilderness of Zin, from the title page of which Lawrence wished his name as co-author to be withheld, (his written instruction is documented in another exhibit).

It’s an exhibition I would strongly recommend to anyone, especially those not too familiar with the central place of the Arab and Muslim world in the Great War itself, about which so much has been said and written recently. As Peter Frankopan interprets it in his wonderful history of the world as seen from central Asia, The Silk Roads, this conflict, though triggered in Serbia, had roots in the struggle of the ‘Great Powers’ over Asia, with the encroachment of Russia on the borders of India and the ambitions of Germany to penetrate beyond the Middle East, not to mention protection of the Suez Canal. The covetousness of these Western powers (Russia, Britain, France, Germany) for the lands of the weakening Ottoman empire and the need to secure sources of oil to fuel their economies during the war and after, led to the configuration of the political geography of the Middle East that is now witnessing terrible upheavals (aided by further Western intervention). As the exhibition also reminds us, the mission of the PEF—including Lawrence himself—was used by the British War Office as an disguise for military intelligence-gathering in the years before the outbreak of the Great War.

The exhibition makes clear, too, the British government’s duplicitous—if, in the circumstances, minimally defensible—exploitation of both Jews and the Arabs for the purpose of gaining their benevolence and cooperation in the war. Promises were made on the one hand to support Jewish settlement in Palestine, while on the other the Emir Hussein was to be installed as ruler of an independent Arab kingdom in Syria, Palestine and Iraq. The first promise was kept; the other, on the basis of which Lawrence was able to secure the ‘Arab revolt’, was betrayed, and, as the exhibition explains, its breach left him deeply ashamed of both his government and of his own role in the deception.

Whether or not the contemporary British visitor also feels a sense of shame at such behaviour, the experience prompts an awareness that the jihad of which Lawrence was so proudly a part, and the Arab kingdom of which its participants dreamed, have both awoken again in grisly forms. Such terrorist attacks, and the creation of an ‘Islamic State’, are grisly perversions of what Lawrence and Hussein dreamed of. Arguably, the State of Israel is not what Balfour would have wished, either: it exists in the midst of hostility and enmity rather than in the peace and security for Jews that it was surely supposed to offer. The exhibition reproduces Balfour’s famous ‘letter’ in which he alludes to the ‘civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine’, but also remarks that Zionism was of ‘far profounder import than the prejudices of the 700,000 Arabs who now inhabit that ancient land’.

Current reflections on the Great War often remark that the reallocation of power within Europe after the fall of the Habsburg, Ottoman and Russian empires (and the dissolution of the British) is still not quite accomplished. This is even truer of the Middle East, where long-established tribal identities were sliced through by lines on the ground, separating territories carved out among European victors. The exhibition shows Lawrence’s own proposed map of a post-war Middle East, which, unlike what became the reality, attempted to take account of the identities that mattered to its inhabitants.

That Western intervention in the Middle East will end as the Crusades did is unlikely. But between the nationalist jihad once vital to Britain’s seizure of Ottoman spoils and the fundamentalist jihad now waged against the it and other Western nations (along with countless Muslims, it must be added) runs the same stream. I left this impressive exhibition realizing how great is the need for an impartial, scholarly but sympathetic dedication to the history and culture of a land which has for centuries been the focus of the West’s Christendom, yet which our governments, past and present, have treated with such disdain.

War in the Holy Lands

Guest post by Briar Barry

We’d hear a heavy smack and know a horse had been hit. Mostly they were hit through the stomach and would just shake themselves a little. The owner would take the saddle off immediately, for it was always a mortal wound. The horse would nose around among his mates, shake himself, and five minutes later roll on the sand. It was the beginning of the end.”

Captain Arthur Rhodes, New Zealand Mounted Rifle Brigade, World War 1

War in the Holy Lands, a new temporary exhibition about New Zealanders’ First World War experiences in the Middle East, is now playing as part of The Great War Exhibition in Wellington, New Zealand. The show is fourth in a series of six created by Story Inc and Dusk, and funded by the Lottery Grants Board, with the intention of telling some of the lesser-known New Zealand stories of the First World War. The exhibit uses six big projection screens and an immersive audio environment to create a powerful visitor experience out of still imagery and first-hand verbatim accounts of soldiers’ experiences.

A talented photographer, Arthur Rhodes captured his experiences during the Beersheba Campaign in Sinai and Palestine on film. The Palestine Exploration Fund of London kindly provided some of the photographs which feature in the show.

Guns drawn up for inspection, a photograph by Captain Arthur Rhodes which features in War in the Holy Lands. PEF/P/RHODES/29, Palestine Exploration Fund, London.

The story of New Zealand’s war in the Middle East is often overlooked. It doesn’t fit with the traditional image of World War 1 – the mud and trenches of the Western Front. Some soldiers at the time shared this view, feeling that they were missing out on the ‘real war.’ A few people back home agreed, seeing them as ‘tourists in uniform’ having an easy time of it in the sun-drenched Middle East. But while the casualty rate was certainly lower than on the Western Front, the Sinai and Palestine campaigns were hardly a holiday. The men faced fierce battles, hordes of flies, extreme temperatures, and rampant malaria. In total 17,723 New Zealanders served in the Middle East. Of them, 640 were killed in action and 1,146 wounded.

The ‘Mounteds’ gained a formidable reputation as fighters and became known by Ottoman troops as “devils on horses”. They would often ride through the night, taking the enemy by surprise at dawn. But it was not all glory. At the end of the war, one of the most shameful events in New Zealand’s military history occurred: a massacre of civilians, in which some New Zealand soldiers played a prominent part, in the Palestinian village of Surafend. Of course there are no photographs or images connected with the event. Instead, a ghostly series of animated “shadowplay” silhouettes hinting at the violence are projected into an otherwise completely black room.

Behind the scenes of the Story Inc and Dusk “shadowplay” shoot. Photo by Story Inc.

Other moments that pack an emotional punch in War in the Holy Lands come from the stories about the bonds between the men and their horses. The open spaces in the Middle East made this a mobile war. The connection between animal and rider was strong, and only made stronger on the battlefield where horses even acted as shields by lying down on the sand so the men could fire over the top of them. However, New Zealand’s strict quarantine policy and a shortage of transport meant that the horses who survived the war could not come home. In the Middle East they were either declared unfit and shot, sold locally, or kept by the occupying British Army. Many troopers, worried about how their horse would be treated if it was sold, made the heart-wrenching decision to shoot their own animal after having them declared unfit. Trooper Ted Andrews described the task,

It was the saddest day of the war…. Each man had to hold two horses, and it was the most sickening job I had… It seemed awfully sad that these poor old faithful creatures, after suffering from thirst, hunger and fatigue and carrying heavy loads for hundreds of miles, should have to end their days being shot down by the very people they had so faithfully served…”

A New Zealand soldier shoots a wounded horse. National Army Museum of New Zealand.

War in the Holy Lands is running from 13 December 2017 until 20 February 2018. Thank you once again to the Palestine Exploration Fund for access to, and permission to use images from their collection.

Visitors watch War in the Holy Lands. Photo by Story Inc.

In the Footsteps of Bliss and Dickie

By Yehiel Zelinger

The earliest excavations on the slopes of Jerusalem’s Mount Zion took place between the years 1894 and 1897 by Frederick J. Bliss and Archibald C. Dickie under the auspices of the London-based Palestine Exploration Fund. Due to issues in acquiring permits from the Ottoman authorities, the two excavated clandestinely by means of deep, narrow shafts interconnected via tunnels dug along the outer face of the defensive walls that enclosed the Mount from the south. The detailed and comprehensive account of their excavations is a milestone in the history of archaeological research in Jerusalem (Bliss and Dickie 1898).

Exposed walls on Mount Zion. Photo: Y. Zelinger.

On behalf of the Israel Antiquities Authority, since 2007 I have re-excavated a large portion of the city walls first exposed in Bliss and Dickie’s tunnels (Fig. 1). Thanks to a generous grant from the PEF, I was granted access to its rich archives and thus able to examine the two excavators’ original letters, maps and reports, and thus bring to light important details that had not been included in their original report. My first impression upon entering the archives was one of great anticipation at the wealth of information awaiting me. Even as a field archaeologist with some 25 years’ experience in excavating Jerusalem and its environs, I felt almost like a child set loose in a toy shop.

I found Bliss’ archives to contain dozens, if not hundreds, of letters, plans and pencil drawings, all pertaining to his work in Jerusalem in general and to the southern line of the city’s fortifications in particular. I was also curious as to whether he and Dickie noted certain walls or floors that did not come to light over the course of our own excavations. Although I often had difficulty deciphering his handwriting, it appears as though every week he would dispatch to the P.E.F. board a detailed report of his new findings — perhaps also as a means to recount for himself that week’s events.

Bliss’s markings on a map of Mount Zion. Photo: Y. Zelinger.

In these, the very early days of the ‘modern’ study of Jerusalem, I got a sense of just how much their activities had been carried out upon a near blank slate. Just one example has Bliss marking Mount Zion on a map as the City of David (Fig. 2). This evidently followed his discovery of the wall that enclosed Mount Zion from the south (which he originally vaguely ascribed to the First Temple period [8-7 Century BCE] but later correctly amended to the Second Temple period [1 Century BCE – 1 Century CE]); and, indeed, at this time it was not entirely clear whether the City of David was to be located on the southern slope of the Temple Mount or on Mount Zion.

Our own excavations on the southern slope of Mount Zion exposed a segment of an earlier line of fortifications, which we dated to the First Temple period (8-7 Century BCE). This came in addition to segments of the aforementioned Second Temple-period wall, as well as to those of the Byzantine Empress Eudocia’s 5th Century BCE fortifications. Bliss and Dickie did not come across segments of the early wall, even though they documented large quantities of Iron Age pottery and figurines. Likewise, Bliss made no mention of the early wall in his personal correspondence, no doubt due to the fact that it lay two meters south of Eudocia’s wall, and thus beyond the bounds of their narrow excavation tunnel – which measured on average only 70 cm in width! Some 120 years later, utilizing modern excavation methods, we were able to expose the broader picture.

With a great deal of work still ahead of me, my two weeks at the PEF archives were nevertheless immensely rewarding. There is no doubt that the multitude of documents belonging to these two pioneering scholars comprise a rare time capsule from which we can glean invaluable information on the ancient fortifications of this golden city.

Further Reading:

Bliss F. J. and Dickie A. C. 1898. Excavations at Jerusalem 1894-1897. London.

2017 Grant Abstracts

Umm at Tawabin: A Nabataean/Roman Military Camp, Ghor as-Safi

Alexandra Ariotti

Umm at-Tawabin is an extensive fortified Nabataean/Roman site overlooking Wadi al-‘Arabah in south Jordan. The site consists of four buildings, over one hundred circular stone structures and other related features that are fortified by a 2.5 km long wall. In 2015-2016 with a PEF grant, I sought to address the question of the site’s chronology through survey and a study of its surface pottery, the results of which are to be published in a forthcoming research article in the PEQ (2017). As my initial investigation concluded, selective excavation of these numerous architectural components was necessary to order to obtain a complete stratigraphic sequence of the site. In February 2017, excavations co-sponsored by the PEF have so far produced securely-dateable cultural material thus confirming that its main fortification, Fort A, was a Nabataean/Roman defence post designed for defence and monitoring. Pending analysis of the pottery recovered from two of the stone circles and the main perimeter wall will further augment our understanding of the site’s occupational history. I now propose to carry out a second 30 day excavation in February, 2018 to retrieve material from three of its remaining forts (Forts B-D) and along the east perimeter wall, and to summarise my findings from this preliminary 2017 season.

A study of Fatimid metal objects in the Keir Collection at the Dallas Museum of Art

Gregory Bilotto

My PhD research concerns metalwork produced under the Fāţimids (909-1172 CE). A component of my research involves the study of Fāţimid metal objects recovered from archaeological excavations and definitely identified as Fāţimid through scientific evidence. A previous travel grant was awarded in 2016 by the Palestine Exploration Fund to examine metal objects datable to the Fāţimids and excavated from two ruined cities in mediaeval Bilad al-Sham. Building upon the research completed in 2016, which includes metalwork designs, imagery and production techniques, a continuation study of Fāţimid metalwork without an archaeological provenance will be undertaken in the Keir Collection at the Dallas Museum of Art in Dallas, Texas. The purpose is to apply the data collected from identified Fāţimid metal objects with those of an unknown origin. The result would be a more accurate identification for all the known Fāţimid metalwork without an archaeological provenance.

Religion, Modernity & the Material Reception of the Holy Land

Crispin Paine

The project’s aim is to examine the reception of the ‘Holy Land’ in modern America, in parks and public venues themed on the Bible – themed notably on Jerusalem, the Israelite Temple, life in ancient Palestine and Noah’s Ark. This project is part of a wider study of religion in theme-parks worldwide, which builds on my work on religion and museums. Religion impacts on modernity in a variety of ways, many of them material. As a burgeoning middle class seeks out modernity and fun as well as education and divine help, theme-parks are taking over much of the role of museums and much of the role of temples.

Diban: Food Production and Consumption in times of Rapid Change

Bruce Routledge

Changes in food production and consumption are sensitive indicators of social and economic change.  At Tell Dhiban, Jordan we have the opportunity to explore changes in diet during two moments of significant historical change and to compare that trajectory of change in a common environment under distinct historical circumstances.  In Field W we have identified domestic waste deposits from teh early eighth century BCE, correlating with a period of massive settlement growth as Dhiban became the capital of the Iron Age kingdom of Moab.  In Field 5 we have isolated a sequence bridging the earliest moments of the transition from Late Byzantine to Early Islamic rule.  In both cases, preliminary evidence suggests changes in both how food is produced and what food is consumed over brief periods of time. In 2017 we will collect further botanical and faunal remains in order to clarify, interpret and compare these patterns of change.

The Islamic Bayda Project

Micaela Sinibaldi

The Islamic Bayda Project focuses on archaeological investigations of an Islamic-period village in the area of Bayda, Petra region. The site, which includes village habitations organised in several clusters, a church, and two mosques, has been in use from at least the Nabataean to the Ottoman periods. This continuity of occupation originates from the fortunate geological and climatic conditions which have always made this area one of the most favoured of the Petra region for agricultural activities.  Some of the principal aims of the Islamic Bayda Project are to investigate the range and development through time of the forms and dynamics of settlement in the Petra region during the whole Islamic period and to explore the important relationship between the Petra valley, where settlement continued without major gaps, and its hinterland.  After three campaigns of excavation, it is proposed that the conservation of one of the two mosques is now started.

Differences in Traditional Health Seeking Practices between Rural and Urban Negev Bedouin Populations

Monika Wanis

Despite the establishment of Israel’s National Health Insurance Law which provided universal biomedical healthcare to all citizens, there remains a large number of rural Bedouins living in Israel’s Negev region with inadequate access to healthcare. This research project will determine how the enactment of this law has shaped Bedouin people’s patterns of utilization, awareness and preferences associated with biomedical and traditional health. A cross-sectional, mixed methods design consisting of interviews, participant observation and case studies will be conducted in the Negev region in Israel for six weeks beginning July 1, 2017. Research findings will educate policymakers on the ramifications of this law and encourage health policy modifications to enhance Bedouin health.

Basement Discoveries at the PEF

By Christine Spenuk (PEF Volunteer)

“The original mission statement of the PEF was to promote research into the archaeology and history, manners and customs and culture, topography, geology and natural sciences of biblical Palestine and the Levant.” (PEF website/History)

This is a mission statement that I believe to still be true today. The Palestine Exploration Fund, as I have come to know it, is a space that is welcoming to scholars, students, and individuals wishing to learn more about the history of Palestine by looking through the vast and varied collections stored on site. In the time I have been volunteering at the PEF I have seen archaeologists, students, teachers and visitors to London come seeking certain materials to learn more about a specific subject, from 19th century PEF explorer Charles Warren’s Jerusalem maps, to photographs taken at excavations from a certain site to locating a specific book stored in the library.

PEF/AO/2359: A ceramic jug, likely made in the early Roman period (c. 1st Century BC – 1st Century BCE), discovered during John and Molly Crowfoot’s Samaria excavations in the 1930s. Photo. C. S.

I became aware of the Palestine Exploration Fund through one of my university professors. After mentioning to her that I was going to be spending the next 2 years living and working in London, she told me about the PEF’s 150th Anniversary Conference taking place in June 2015. I was intrigued; I had just finished university and hadn’t had much of a chance to explore many archaeological organizations other than the ones around my school and home (both in Canada). I attended the day-long conference and the following summer sent an email to the curator, Felicity Cobbing, asking about volunteer opportunities within the organization. That fall (September 2016) I began volunteering at the PEF.

PEF/AO/100: A ceramic juggler; dating to the Middle Bronze IIA (currently thought to be c.1950 BCE) from Charles Warren’s excavations in Jerusalem in the late 1860s. Photo: C. S.

At first I was unsure of what I would be doing, but having both experience in photographing artefacts and working with a collection of artefacts from a previous job in Canada, I was hopeful my role would be one I was familiar with (and it is). I am busy photographing the PEF’s extensive collection of archaeological artefacts.

There are over 6,000 artefacts in the archive and so far I have photographed just over 2,000, mainly from three excavations: Charles Warren’s Jerusalem excavations (1867-1870), Flinders Petrie and Frederick Bliss’s Tell el Hesi excavations (1890-92), and British School of Archaeology in Jerusalem/Harvard University excavations at Samaria (led by John and Molly Crowfoot in the 1930s). Included in these artefacts are beautifully intact pieces of pottery, potsherds, glass pieces, tiny beads, charred ivory fragments (a lot of these), tiny pieces of gold leaf (which stick to everything you don’t want them to making photographing challenging), and small scarabs. Many of these artefacts are so tiny I am worried my camera won’t be able to zoom in close enough to capture the stunning details, but so far my sturdy Sony hasn’t let me down. The size of some of the fragments means it is not always possible to determine what the shard once was.

PEF/AO/2273: Fragments from John and Molly Crowfoot’s excavations at Samaria in the 1930s; ivory fragments (black). Photo: C. S.

PEF/AO/1973: Glass rim fragment (c. 4th – 6th centuries CE) discovered during the Samaria excavations. Photo: C. S.

PEF/AO/68: A medieval Islamic hand-made pottery lamp with painted decoration and glaze, discovered during Warren’s excavations in Jerusalem. Photo: C. S.

The full collection is housed in the basement of the PEF; a cramped cluttered space with every inch of available space used for storage. Even the furniture holds historical significance. While the space is small, and the storage of the artefacts is less than ideal, I go to basement happily; every day I am there I discover another piece of the past that I would not have seen otherwise. I can definitely say that I much prefer to be working in a basement getting covered in 1,000 year old dirt to sitting in an office typing on a computer all day!

Author at work photographing objects at the PEF.

Looking at the Face of History

By Felicity Cobbing (PEF)

Exhibition Review: ‘Creating an Ancestor: The Jericho Skull’

Currently showing at the British Museum’s Room 3 gallery until the 19th February is a small but fascinating exhibition concerning one of its most important exhibits – one of the Neolithic plastered skulls from Jericho in Palestine, excavated by Kathleen Kenyon and her team in the 1950s.

The Jericho skull on display in the British Museum. Photo: F. Cobbing, 2016.

Jericho on the Map. This relief map is based on the PEF’s Survey of Western Palestine 1871 – 1878, and digitally modified by F. Cobbing.

The exhibition was designed by Dr. Alexandra Fletcher in the BM’s Department of Middle East, and is based on the work of a research team that brought together colleagues from the BM’s Science department, Natural History Museum, University of Liverpool and Imperial College London.

Using the latest Micro-CT scanning and 3D printing technology, the team have revealed hitherto hidden physiological details to us, and on display alongside the skull itself is a 3D reconstruction of the face and head of the man whose skull it was. The exhibition is at once the story of the excavations and Kenyon’s exacting methodology, the thrilling moment of discovery, recounted Peter Parr who actually found the skull, and of the Neolithic culture at Jericho from which the skull originates.

The reconstructed 3D portrait of Jericho Man. Photo: F. Cobbing, 2016.

The purpose of the skulls in this culture is examined, as is the process of the turning the human remains into a cultural artefact. The extraordinary science and technology which has enabled this story to be told for the first time is the final element. Guiding us around is the figure of a rather cuddly, child friendly Kathleen Kenyon, presenting her side of the story at the bottom of each test panel in a feature especially designed for families and school groups. The PEF’s own humble contribution is a photo of Kenyon at Jerusalem by John Bartlett.

Dame Kathleen Kenyon in Jerusalem, photo by John Bartlett as seen in the exhibition. Photo: F. Cobbing, 2016.

This little exhibition is a great example of how one object can tell a myriad of stories, and how research into objects is continuously evolving. There is an undeniably special feeling at looking into such an ancient individual’s face, not seen for 10,000 years, but at the same time someone who is entirely recognisable as one of us.

‘Creating an Ancestor: The Jericho Skull’ is free, and runs until 19th February, with gallery talks and events throughout this period. Check the BM events website for more details, including an absolutely fascinating podcast about the excavation, the skull’s discovery, and the modern science behind the most recent research.

This 1933 photograph shows a figure gazing the site of ancient Jericho beyond, from John Garstang’s archive at the PEF.

The PEF is Camera Ready for Raising Horizons

By Amara Thornton, Leonora Saunders, Felicity Cobbing and Becky Wragg Sykes

Last month the four women behind Trowelblazers, a digital platform for crowd-sourced biographies of pioneering women in archaeology, geology and palaeonology, in collaboration with photographer Leonora Saunders launched a new project, Raising Horizons.  Supported by Prospect, Raising Horizons will feature a photographic exhibition, oral histories and associated events celebrating the long history of women working in these subjects.

Fourteen women actively working in archaeology, geology and paleontology today have been paired with a historical counterpart. Leonora and Trowelblazers have been working together to resurrect these historical women, creating new portraits as their modern ‘pairs’ represent them in costume. Their goal is to highlight the diversity of the fields today, and provide role models for younger generations while referencing and paying homage to the women who came before them.

One of the historic figures included is Kathleen Kenyon who as Director of the British School of Archaeology in Jerusalem led excavations at Jericho in the 1950s and Jerusalem in the 1960s. Kenyon is being portrayed by the archaeologist Shahina Farid, who as Field Director  conducted excavations at the site of Çatalhöyük, Turkey between the 1990s and 2012.  Both have been instrumental in training the next generation of archaeologists.

Final touches complete Shahina's Kathleen Kenyon 'look'. Courtesy of Leonora Saunders/Raising Horizons.

Final touches complete Shahina’s Kathleen Kenyon ‘look’. Courtesy of Raising Horizons.

Setting up the shot - getting ready to shoot Shahina as Kathleen. Courtesy of Leonora Saunders/Raising Horizons.

Setting up the shot – getting ready to shoot Shahina as Kathleen. Courtesy of Raising Horizons.

Close up shot of the PEF camera. Courtesy of

Close up shot of the PEF camera. Courtesy of Raising Horizons.

For the Farid/Kenyon portrait, the PEF loaned its Sands Hunter & Co camera with Zeiss lens which once belonged to the archaeologist John Garstang.  Garstang used it on site at Jericho in the 1930s, so the camera has historic significance for the portrait. His wife Marie Louise Bergès Garstang, who excavated alongside him after their marriage in 1907, is also represented in the archive. Their daughter Meroe Garstang – named after one of the most important sites her parents excavated – also joined them on site at Jericho.

Marie Garstang excavating at Jericho, 1931. (PEF-P-GAR-JER-J.31)

Marie Garstang excavating at Jericho, 1931. (Garstang archive, Palestine Exploration Fund)

Another fantastic photograph in the Liverpool University Garstang Museum shows Marie Garstang excavating with her husband at Meroe in Sudan where they worked in the years immediately before the First World War. His and hers pith helmets, placed side by side at the edge of the trench, echo their working relationship captured in the image.

A number of institutions are supporting the Raising Horizons project, but Trowelblazers is actively crowdfunding to enable the project to go on tour and support associated events in these locations.  A full list of institutional supporters can be found on Trowelblazers website – but you can help support the project at their Indiegogo page.  A range of bespoke rewards have been sourced to accompany donations.

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Rebecca Wragg Sykes, Brenna Hassett, Suzanne Pilaar Birch and Tori Herridge founded Trowelblazers in 2013. Find out more about them at Trowelblazers.com. Read more about Raising Horizons in the Guardian.

Watch the Raising Horizons Fundraiser video.

Discover the connections between Shahina Farid and Kathleen Kenyon.

Learn more about Leonora’s work at her website: http://www.leonorasaunders.co.uk/